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Here are some common eye Defects and how to prevent them

1. Cataract
Light rays from objects in view must pass through your lens to reach your retina’s light-sensing cells. When a cataract clouds the lens, your vision fogs and lights get a halo.
Tips for prevention: Protect your eyes with lenses that block both UVA and UVB light, and avoid smoking. It’s important to control your blood pressure, watch your weight and manage diabetes as well.

2. Diabetic retinopathy

Your retina transforms light into signals your brain can process. Diabetes can swell the retina and make blood vessels leak or grow, causing blurring, flashes, floaters, pain and pressure.
Tips for prevention: Get yearly dilated eye exams to detect diabetic eye problems early, which can prevent or slow vision loss. Controlling your blood glucose and blood pressure is also key.

3. Macular degeneration

You rely on light-sensing cells in the macula, the center of your retina, for what is called central vision. In age-related macular degeneration (AMD), tissue breakdown or blood vessel growth in the macula makes it hard to see faces, read, drive and more.
Tips for prevention: Avoid smoking, which doubles your risk of macular degeneration as you age. Get regular exercise, control your blood pressure and cholesterol. Also, eat lots of leafy greens and fish.

4. Glaucoma

The right amount of fluid must fill the space within your eye. Pressure from too much fluid damages the optic nerve, stealing your peripheral, and then your central, vision.
Tip for prevention: Work with your eye doctor to keep your eye pressure well-controlled to avoid losing your vision.

5. Refractive errors

Your eyeball, cornea and lens must be shaped just right for light rays to bend (refract) and land on your retina to make their way to the brain. If this process doesn’t happen, vision blurs.
In refractive errors, light rays do not bend and land where they should in the eye. Refractive errors include:
Nearsightedness (myopia): Light rays fall short of your retina.
Farsightedness (hyperopia): Light rays overreach your retina.
Astigmatism: Light rays fall unevenly on your retina’s surface.
Age related difficulty focusing up close
(presbyopia): Light rays overreach the retina, making reading and other close work a challenge.
Tip for correction: Eye exams are recommended annually before age 18 and after age 65, and every two years in between (unless you have a medical or eye problem that requires frequent attention).


1) Wash your hands

In case you need another reason to wash your hands, here you go. Many common vision-related diseases can be spread by touching in or around the eye with an unwashed hand.
Pink eye, staph and even chlamydia and gonorrhea pass from hands to eyes. These bacterial and viral infections can cause long-term eyesight damage. To reduce your risk, develop a healthy hand washing routine. Also, never touch near your eyes for any reason if you haven’t just washed your hands.

2) Safely handle & store contacts

For the above reasons, storing and handling contacts safely is very important for healthy eyes2.

As a reminder:

  • Avoid extended wear.
  • Never reuse solution.
  • Toss solution when it expires. A little waste is better than an eye infection.
  • Never touch the tip of your solution bottle with hands or eye.
  • Sterilize your case regularly.
    Never touch your contacts without washing your hands.
  • If your contact falls on the counter or floor, clean it thoroughly before using it. If possible, toss it.
  • Keep your contact case and solution in a clean place, not out on the counter where it can be exposed to air-borne illness

3) Avoid risky cosmetic procedures

Your eyes are one of the single most important organs you have. Don’t risk your eye health by getting dangerous procedures like iris tattooing or unnecessary lid lifts. Even using cosmetic contacts that weren’t approved by your Optometrist can be risky and cause serious harm. They simply aren’t worth the risk.

4) Wear eye protection

If you’ve been working around lawn equipment or power tools most of your life, it’s easy to get careless. You might think: nothing’s happened so far. But it only takes one time not wearing protective glasses for something to become lodged in your eye. Wear eye protection around projectile-flinging equipment every time. Eye protection can also include wearing sunglasses with UVA and UVB protection.

5) Eat eye-healthy foods

If you want to keep your vision for a lifetime, a healthy diet is the way to go. A complete diet consists of a variety of whole foods. Reduce your risk of cataracts, macular degeneration, night-blindness and other eye problems with a balanced diet.

Some of vision-boosting foods include:

  • Fish that are high in omega-3’s like salmon and tuna
  • Leafy greens like kale, spinach and collard greens that contain lutein
  • Eggs that contain protein and other important micro-nutrients
  • Whole grains like barley and quinoa that contain B vitamins and help regulate blood sugar
  • Bell peppers and citrus to get plenty of C
    Nuts & Seeds that contain Omega 3,
  • protein and others eye-healthy nutrients
    Additional information surrounding eye-healthy foods can be found here.

6) Exercise

Exercise helps reduce stress, regulate blood sugar and increase blood flow. All of these are great for staying fit and for maintaining healthy eyes. Get your heart-rate up several times a week and get some exercise every day to keep your eyes healthy.

7) Manage blood sugar, cholesterol & blood pressure

Uncontrolled blood sugar, high cholesterol and high blood pressure can reduce the efficiency of your circulatory system. If your eyes can’t get proper blood flow, vision health will suffer. Diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma or blurry vision may result.
Proper diet and exercise along with seeing your doctor will help you keep these risk factors managed.

8) Rest your eyes

If you’re like most people, you spend a lot of time staring at a computer screen. Vision is a “use it or lose it” sense. If you’re not using your distance vision, while overusing your near vision, you make develop near-sightedness and eye strain. In addition, devices emit a particularly harmful light called blue light.
Take regular breaks. Look away from the computer as much as you can. Go for a walk to increase blood flow.

9) Stop smoking

Smoking increases your risk of vision loss as you age. You may not even feel it anymore, but the smoke is constantly irritating and inflaming your eyes. Eventually, they’ll say enough is enough and your eyesight will decline. Even if you’ve tried before, try again for your health.

10) See an eye health professional

Regularly see your optometrist. They’ll be able to identify issues early and can advise you about lifestyle changes to help you keep your sight longer. You only get one set of eyes. Keep them healthy with these healthy habits.
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